KRISHGEN Biosystems has been a pioneer in this field in India helping toxicologists by providing them tools required for understanding drug metabolism.

Xenobiotic metabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that modify the chemical structure of xenobiotics, which are compounds foreign to an organism’s normal biochemistry, such as drugs and poisons.

Xenobiotic metabolism is divided into three phases. In phase I, enzymes such as cytochrome P450 oxidases introduce reactive or polar groups into xenobiotics. These modified compounds are then conjugated to polar compounds in phase II reactions. These reactions are catalysed by transferase enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases. Finally, in phase III, the conjugated xenobiotics may be further processed, before being recognized by efflux transporters and pumped out of cells. We provide the recombinant enzymes for Phase I and Phase II studies.

As market leaders in India today, we work with the world’s leading players for distributing their products and providing these tools to Indian toxicologists.


is a Contract Research Organization (CRO) serving clients with their unparalleled experience and expertise in evaluating drug candidates as substrates, inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Based in Kansas, USA; Xenotech offers an extensive selection of products for drug metabolism research. To assess the victim and perpetrator potential of drug candidates, XenoTech also designs and conducts studies in accordance with US FDA

Cypex Limited,

Dundee, Scotland is the major supplier of recombinant CYP enzymes to the world. The patented technology underlying Cypex’s products was developed at the University of Dundee, Scotland during a five year project in partnership with 15 pharmaceutical companies. It enables the expression of human drug metabolizing enzymes in bacteria without the need for large modifications to be made to the proteins.

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